Certain specific uses are authorised for database users, without requiring the prior agreement of the database producer. These are the exceptions to the exclusive right of the database producer.

The actions that can be performed without the consent of the database producer are:

  • the extraction and reuse of insubstantial parts (but repeated and systematic extraction and reuse are not authorised if they allow the database to be recreated);
  • extraction for private purposes;
  • extraction for the purpose of illustrating teaching or scientific research, not for profit;
  • use for purposes of public security and administrative or legal proceedings;
  • any act that allows a person who is blind or has a visual or perceptual impairment to access a database in a format that is accessible to them;
  • the resale of a copy of the database when it has already been sold by or with the agreement of the producer within the territory of the European Union (this exception does not apply to online transmissions).  
Last update
24 March 2022