The term 'Bonus-Malus' (Bonus-Penalty) refers to a method of weighting the risk assessment, according to the claims made.

The royal decree of 16 January 2002, which came into force on 1 January 2004, put an end to the uniform bonus-malus system. Since 1 January 2004, each insurer has had his own bonus-malus system. Insurers are so creative that making a comparison has become almost impossible. 

Where the policy provides for a personalisation mechanism based on claims that have been made, it must describe:

  • all the elements that are taken into account when entering the mechanism;
  • all the elements that are taken into account, throughout the duration of the contract, for variations in pricing elements;
  • where appropriate, the minimum and maximum amounts or levels of the pricing elements;
  • where appropriate, the method for obtaining the amounts of the pricing elements from variations in the mechanism that the insurer applies;

So, pay attention to the description of the fluctuation on the bonus-malus scale in the event of a claim. Indeed, a premium can be very attractive when you first enter the system but turn out to be punitive from the first claim.

Certificate of claims

The certificate of claims is a document setting out for each claim made during the period of cover (up to a maximum of five years), the amount of compensation paid by the insurer, eventually if it is paid pursuant to Article 29bis LRA (weak user), an indication of the fact that the driver's liability is invoked, shared, not invoked or not yet determined.

If you plan to change insurers, you will be asked to submit a certificate of claims. You can also consult or print your certificate from the Carattest site using a card reader, your identity card and your pin code. Nevertheless, do not forget that you have to notify  the cancellation of your contract at least 4 months before it ends, so do not push the procedure to a later time !

You can ask your insurer for a certificate of claims at any time. It will be automatically delivered to you within 15 days of the end of the contract. Once you have it, you can calculate your premium online or request an estimate from different insurers.

Compare not only the premium but also the cover, if you are considering changing insurers.

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Last update
9 March 2023